Fuelled by a rapid increase in international trade and a growing middle-class demand for consumer goods, Britain led the world in the development of rail networks and steamships. Its imports and exports increased concomitantly, supported by the class system and a renewed puritan work ethic. On the sea, Britain dominated the industrialised world both in tonnage and distance:
Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families Collected tribute in the barangay Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period Position was made elective in ; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo. Political system[ edit ] Fort San Pedro was first of many fortresses to protect the islands from invaders such as pirates and other colonizers.
The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. The first task was the reduction, or relocation of native inhabitants into settlements. The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomienda system, which resembled the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants.
In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance.
In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from invaders such as the DutchBritish and Chinese.
The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by was largely replaced by administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor provincial governor  The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located.
Residential areas lay around the plaza. During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza.
With the seat of power in Intramuros, Manilathe Governor-General was given several duties: His yearly salary was 40, pesos. The Governor-General was commonly a peninsular Spaniarda Spaniard born in Spain, to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown or tiara. Philippine map Main article: Provinces of the Philippines On the local level, heading the pacified provinces alcaldiawas the provincial governor alcalde mayor.
The unpacified military zones corregimientosuch as Mariveles and Mindorowere headed by the corregidores. City governments ayuntamientoswere also headed by an alcalde mayor.
Alcalde mayors and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province and even vice-regal patron.
His annual salary ranged from P to P before and P to P after it. But this can be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him.
The alcalde mayor was usually an Insulares Spaniard born in the Philippines. Municipal government[ edit ] The pueblo or town is headed by the Gobernadorcillo or little governor.
Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list padronrecruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription quintopostal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: His annual salary, however, was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation.
Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo.
Barangay Every barangay was further divided into "barrios", and the barrio government village or district rested on the barrio administrator cabeza de barangay. He was responsible for peace and order and recruited men for communal public works.
Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property.
Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor.The Arts & Crafts Movement. The Arts and Crafts Movement was an international design movement that reacted against mass production, both the low quality of design and the demeaning conditions under which products were produced.
The movement began in England in the late s, and spread to the United States in the early decades of the 20th century.
The industrialization of Europe created great demands for raw materials from the colonies, bringing with it investment and wealth, although this was very unevenly distributed. Governor-General Basco had opened the Philippines to this trade.
Previously, the Philippines was seen as a trading post for international trade but in the nineteenth century it was developed both as a source of raw materials .
History Exam 2. STUDY. PLAY. The Family Economy (or The Household Economy) what was the role of cotton in 19th century world history? It was a huge industry because cotton was a huge variety, comfortable, easily cleaned, stylish, absorptive medicine, and schooling today if Europe's need for a raw material ever went out, that.
In this lesson, you will explore the architecture of the 19th century CE and discover how empires and materials both influenced styles of building. Watch video · Along with amazing technological advances, the Industrial Revolution of the midth century introduced new sources of air and water pollution.
What factors shaped the world from to ? World: 2 Colonial empires in Source O.2 Source: Oxford University Press raw materials like timber, cotton, coal and gold. These materials became the driving Source O.8 People living in a 19th-century London slum.