Marion's old home page 18thC Cowkeeper essays - Contents This is the home page of a collection of essays about Cowkeepers, in which I look at the way in which milk was supplied to the growing cities of the 18th century, by whom, and at what price. I describe the risks of cow-keeping, milk yield, price rises, what they did with snails yukand write about the ordinary men and women who were cow-keepers in London between and There are quick links in the left-hand margin here, and below I describe each essay's contents in more detail, with direct links to the various sections and drilldowns of each essay. Contents Introduction explains what prompted me to write these essays.
Download Printable PDF Origins From the very beginning of the age of exploration and discovery, the utility of overseas developments to the mother country as a depository for deviants and the poor was a factor in policy and propaganda.
Richard Hakluyt specifically mentioned its positive features in the reign of Elizabeth the First though Sir Francis Bacon, writing a generation later, was more sceptical. The pattern of criminal transportation varied not only between the three kingdoms of England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland, but from place to place within the three kingdoms.
In the early seventeenth century, rogues and vagabonds figured prominently among transportees as did orphans and the poor as Griffiths demonstrates in his analysis of the records of Bridewell. But, by mid-century, transportation came to reflect the political and religious turmoil affecting Britain and Ireland.
In the later seventeenth century, serious offenders, initially sentenced to death and pardoned on condition of 14 years transportation, emerged as a dominant feature in the transatlantic trade. Despite the need for labour, colonists protested against the influx of these undesirables.
They protested again when Parliament passed the Transportation Act but their protests were ignored. The Transportation Act was the consequence of a crisis not only of law and order, but the culmination of a quest for an alternative form of punishment to the death penalty and the fact that existing penal policy failed to act as a deterrent to wrongdoers.
The problem was not confined to London, though it was especially severe in the capital in the s. Violent street robbery plagued the city and as a result of the great recoinage, convictions for clipping and counterfeiting coin swelled an already growing gaol population made up of those either awaiting trial, execution or transportation.
In London gaols were filled with women who had been brought before the courts on charges of offences against property but the courts were reluctant to hand down too many death sentences and authorities in the West Indies declared they did not want them. The most significant feature of the new Act, however, was that it allowed justices of the peace the magistrates in the lower courts, the quarter sessions to sentence those found guilty of lesser crimes — usually misdemeanours — to 7 years transportation.
It also specified that those who returned to England before the term of their sentence had expired should face execution. In addition, it was recognized that if the system was to work effectively the government needed to fund it.
In other parts of the country, arrangements were made by local authorities and paid for by county taxes. Numbers Counting convicts is not an exact science. In some counties, such as those in the Midland Circuit, Assize records kept centrally have not survived; county records kept locally are also patchy.
Smith, a pioneer in the study of criminal transportation, put the figure for those sent to the colonies from to as 4, The number transported from Britain and Ireland between and is usually given as around 50, but this figure includes those transported from Ireland which Ekirch estimated as about 13, but Kelly has revised downwards to between 10, and 11, Numbers for Scotland remain problematic though should probably be revised upwards.
The Transportation Act of was extended to Scotland in before which transportation was limited to capital offenders who were supposed to remove themselves. In Ireland, which had its own parliament, legislation in and permitted the transportation of vagrants whose numbers appear to have equalled those of criminals.
There is also the question of how widely transportation was adopted outside London and the Home Counties where it lacked a government subsidy. Government contractor Duncan Campbell provided a similar estimate when in during the course of the Revolutionary War he stated that numbers were roughly equal.
Convict Voyages Convict voyages usually lasted 6 to 8 weeks after which conditions on board deteriorated rapidly. Some convicts died of disease before reaching their destination. Mortality rates were not unduly high but there were exceptions. Some vessels were lost at sea; others met with catastrophe along perilous coastlines of England and Wales and North America.
There were also problems with the convicts among whom unrest could turn to mutiny as in the case of James Dalton who in with a group of mutineers forced the captain of the Honour Richard Langley to put in to the Spanish port of Vigo. Some vessels were captured by privateers.
Destination Most convicts were sent to the Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland. These were tobacco-growing colonies heavily dependent on slave labour and characterized by non-nuclear patterns of settlement.
Bampfylde Moore Carew, whose several accounts of his eventful life as convict, vagrant and gypsy were widely read, though not always reliable, describes how it was the custom to groom convicts before they were put up for sale. Convicts were predominantly young and male and not highly skilled.
They, like their female counterparts, had usually been found guilty of property theft. They were not members of a criminal class or organized gangs but rather members of the working poor.
Women whose numbers have been traditionally underestimated were a sizable minority especially in the towns and at the quarter sessions. Runaway advertisements identify convicts with a range of skills but these represent only a minority of convicts: Runaway Edward Billingham, a convict servant from County Durham condemned at quarter sessions for stealing 2 geese, was one of them.
His master, Sampson Matthews of Staunton in Augusta County on the Virginia frontier, identified him as a chimney sweep and labourer. Others ran away from the many iron works in Virginia and Maryland. Gender According to Lodine-Chaffey, of approximately 15, individuals sentenced to transportation at the Old Bailey, over 4, were women.
Morgan and Rushton found women in the majority of those transported from the Newcastle quarter sessions in the third quarter of the eighteenth century and often amounted to a third of those transported from elsewhere in the northeast, northwest, Bristol and the western circuit.All quizzes were created with Hot Potatoes by Half-Baked Software from the University of Victoria, Canada Language Centre.
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Both the Rococo and the Neoclassical Art period occurred at some stage in the 18th century in what is know known as the European age of. Free eighteenth century papers, essays, and research papers.
Free Essays from Bartleby | The Hound of the Baskervilles - Women of the 18th Century The Hound of the Baskervilles is the tale of a mythical beast which is. Ralph Waldo Emerson was one of the leaders of the Transcendentalist movement during the midth century alongside fellow writers Henry David Thoreau, for whom Emerson was a mentor, and Frederic Henry Hedge.
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