Projects may be audited or reviewed while the project is in progress. Formal audits are generally risk or compliance-based and management will direct the objectives of the audit. An examination may include a comparison of approved project management processes with how the project is actually being managed.
Grass Savannah Although humans can do little or nothing to change the incidence or intensity of most natural phenomena, they have an important role to play in ensuring that natural events are not converted into disasters by their own actions.
It is important to understand that human intervention can increase the frequency and severity of natural hazards. For example, when the toe of a landslide is removed to make room for a settlement, the earth can move again and bury the settlement.
Human intervention may also cause natural hazards where none existed before.
Volcanoes erupt periodically, but it is not until the rich soils formed on their eject are occupied by farms and human settlements that they are considered hazardous.
Finally, human intervention reduces the mitigating effect of natural ecosystems. An extreme case of destructive human intervention into an ecosystem is desertification, which, by its very definition, is a human-induced "natural" hazard.
All this is the key Project planning case study developing effective vulnerability reduction measures: In a general sense, these tasks may be called "environmental planning"; they consist of diagnosing the needs of an area and identifying the resources available to it, then using this information to formulate an integrated development strategy composed of sectoral investment projects.
This process uses methods of systems analysis and conflict management to arrive at an equitable distribution of costs and benefits, and in doing so it links the quality of human life to environmental quality. In the planning work, then, the environment-the structure and function of the ecosystems that surround and support human life-represents the conceptual framework.
In the context of economic development, the environment is that composite of goods, services, and constraints offered by surrounding ecosystems. An ecosystem is a coherent set of interlocking relationships between and among living things and their environments.
For example, a forest is an ecosystem that offers goods, including trees that provide lumber, fuel, and fruit.
The forest may also provide services in the form of water storage and flood control, wildlife habitat, nutrient storage, and recreation.
The forest, however, like any physical resource, also has its constraints. It requires a fixed period of time in which to reproduce itself, and it is vulnerable to wildfires and blights.
These vulnerabilities, or natural hazards, constrain the development potential of the forest ecosystem. Earthquakes represent a particularly severe threat due to the irregular time intervals between events, lack of adequate forecasting, and the hazards associated with these: Structural failure takes many human lives in densely populated areas.
Rows and lateral spreads liquefaction phenomena are among the most destructive geologic hazards. Subsidence occurs in waterlogged soils, fill, alluvium, and other materials that are prone to settle.
Volcanic hazards stem from two classes of eruptions: Explosions pose a risk by scattering rock blocks, fragments, and lava at varying distances from the source. Flows vary in nature mud, ash, lava and quantity and may originate from multiple sources.
Flows are governed by gravity, surrounding topography, and material viscosity. Hazards associated with volcanic eruptions include lava flows, falling ash and projectiles, mudflows, and toxic gases.
Volcanic activity may also trigger other natural hazardous events including local tsunamis, deformation of the landscape, floods when lakes are breached or when streams and rivers are dammed, and tremor-provoked landslides.
Landslides The term landslide includes slides, falls, and flows of unconsolidated materials.
Landslides can be triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, soils saturated by heavy rain or groundwater rise, and river undercutting.Efficient Scheduling / Resource Planning & Reports in Engineering.
With its 36 development sites using a patchwork of different project and resource planning tools, The Customer had insufficient visibility into project costs, schedules and resource demands. Fundamentals of Project Planning and Management from University of Virginia.
Projects are all around us.
Virtually every organization runs projects, either formally or informally. We are engaged in projects at home and at work. Across settings. Video created by University of California, Irvine for the course "Initiating and Planning Projects". In this module, we will identify the key characteristics of a project, identify primary project constraints, define the role and responsibilities.
Questions about a case study solution, please e-mail me at "admin at MBAcasestudysolutions dot com". The future of planning—online project planning in the cloud. READ MORE. The project manager’s guide to planning a perfect project.
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With agile in Microsoft Project, you can manage agile projects by using. The planning process in development areas does not usually include measures to reduce hazards, and as a consequence, natural disasters cause needless human suffering and economic losses.