Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p. Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential.
Jobs Uses and Gratifications Theory A family sits down together to watch television, and an argument quickly ensues. Dad wants to watch the big football game.
Mom wants to see a talk show about dealing with nosy neighbors; just yesterday, she spied Mrs.
Cranford from next door peeking over their fence. Nine-year-old Bobby clamors for his favorite superhero cartoon, knowing that it always entertains him. Twelve-year-old Nina, however, begs to watch a quiz show; she loves seeing how many questions she can answer correctly.
This scenario illustrates the idea behind Uses and Gratifications Theory. According to the theory, media users actively select the types of media and media content they consume to gratify various psychological needs. Its purpose is to explain how and why people use media.
The theory first surfaced in the s but is credited primarily to the research of communications professor Jay Blumler and sociologist Elihu Katz in the s. Research to support the theory is conducted largely through surveys and questionnaires, by which media users self-report their gratifications.
Assumptions Uses and Gratifications Theory posits a few basic assumptions: The audience takes an active role in selecting a medium, as well as interpreting it and integrating it into their lives. The medium that provides the most satisfaction for a person will be used more often than other types.
Cognitive — Refers to acquiring information to aid the thinking and understanding process. People use media such as documentaries and how-to videos to increase their skills or knowledge in a certain area.
Affective — Relates to emotions or feelings. People use media to arouse certain emotions within themselves, such as happiness, fear or pleasure. People with this need use media, like Facebook and YouTube, to increase their credibility or social standing or to affirm their sense of self.
Social Integrative — Refers to interacting with family and friends. People use media to connect with others. Tension Release — Relates to diversion and stress relief.
People use media as catharsis or to escape from reality. The same form of media or content can fulfill different needs among consumers. For instance, a scientific TV show can provide cognitive gratification for one viewer while providing tension release for another. Developmental maturity, personality, background, class and social roles determine the types of needs individuals have.
The Role of Media Research also shows the importance of certain roles played by the various media.
They can reinforce personal values or model social behaviors. They can provide a basis for social interaction or substitute for real companionship. They can strengthen biases or enable consumers to empathize with others.
They can solidify social roles or motivate people to question them. They can help people become more knowledgeable about the world around them or allow them to escape it.
However, Uses and Gratifications Theory suggests that whatever effect media has on an audience is largely determined by the audience itself. Though some forms of media present messages carefully crafted to evoke certain kinds of responses, recipients are capable of interpreting the messages in different ways.
Also, audiences often practice selective exposure, choosing the media content that best affirms their values and opinions.
Criticism Though Uses and Gratifications Theory represents a vast improvement over earlier models that assumed audiences were passive and gullible, critics have still managed to find some shortcomings within it. First of all, some researchers say the theory credits audiences with too much selectivity.
Some people may consume media without any conscious reason to do so, such as out of habit or ritual.
Also, the emphasis on selectivity ignores other unintended effects that the media might have on an audience.Summary: Uses and gratification theory (UGT) is an audience-centered approach that focuses on what people do with media, as opposed to what media does to p.
A family sits down together to watch television, and an argument quickly ensues. Dad wants to watch the big football game. His coworkers plan to discuss it the next day, and he . This glossary lists the most common methods and approaches, particularly for quantitative research.
See also the glossary of qualitative yunusemremert.compping methods are listed in both glossaries. Mark Zuckerberg tells Congress it's a 'conspiracy theory' that Facebook uses your microphone to spy on you.
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